We’ll share tips and tricks to take your React skills to the next level. We’ll cover topics like performance optimizations, patterns for sharing state, advanced component techniques, and more. Some of these insights took us years of working with React to discover and perfect.
Our goal is to help you become a React expert by avoiding common pitfalls and leveraging React’s capabilities to build awesome applications. Let’s dive in!
As your app grows in size and complexity, you’ll eventually run into performance bottlenecks. React provides many ways to optimize your app so it stays fast and responsive. Here are some key areas to focus on:
Use Production Builds
When deploying your React app to production, make sure you use the minified production build. The development build includes extra warnings and debugging info that bloat your code. With a minified production build, your app will load faster for your users.
React builds and maintains an internal representation of the rendered UI. When state changes, React will “reconcile” this virtual DOM with the real DOM by finding differences and updating just what needs to be changed.
Reconciliation is blazing fast, but you can avoid it when possible. The best way is to use React.memo() on function components to prevent unnecessary re-renders when the props haven’t changed. You can also wrap shouldComponentUpdate() in class components.
Virtualize Long Lists
Rendering thousands of DOM nodes can slow down the browser. For long lists, use react-window or react-virtualized to only render a small subset of rows. This “windowing” technique keeps your app fast and responsive.
Lazy Load Components
When building large apps with many screens, avoid loading all your code upfront. Instead, dynamically import components using React.lazy() so they are only loaded when needed. This splits your code into separate bundles that load on demand.
Prefer Hooks Over HOCs
Hooks offer a lighter way to reuse stateful logic vs wrapping components in higher-order components (HOCs). To share logic between components, prefer using custom Hooks. Under the hood Hooks avoid the nested component trees created by HOCs.
Patterns for Sharing State
Managing state is one of the trickiest parts of React. When state needs to be shared across different components, things can get really messy. Here are some patterns for keeping shared state understandable and maintainable:
Lift State Up
Often it makes sense to “lift state up” to a common ancestor component so derived data is kept in sync. This is React’s recommended approach – put the shared state in a container component and pass data down via props.
This avoids duplicating state across siblings and props provide a clear data flow. However, lifting state too high can make components hard to reuse.
For state that needs to be accessed from deeply nested components, React Context provides a way to “broadcast” this data globably.
Start by creating a Context object using React.createContext(). The Provider component can make values available to all children. Finally, nested components can access the context data via the useContext() hook.
Context is great for global data like current user, theme, or language. But avoid using it for state that changes frequently.
For complex apps with lots of shared state, Redux provides a powerful state management solution. Redux follows the “one immutable store” pattern – all state is kept in a single object and updated via actions and reducers.
Components simply subscribe to the parts of store state they need. Combined with React Redux bindings, it provides predictable and traceable state management. However, Redux also adds boilerplate so carefully consider if it’s needed.
For sharing server state and cached API data across components, React Query is a fantastic new library. It allows fetching and synchronizing asynchronous data in a declarative way.
React Query handles caching, stale-while-revalidate updates, and performance optimizations under the hood. And it exposes query results via the powerful useQuery() hook. For complex data workflows, React Query is a lifesaver!
Advanced Component Patterns
Beyond basic function and class components, React enables some powerful patterns through its composition model:
The compound components pattern involves breaking complex component logic into smaller focused child components. For example, Tabs, TabList, and Tab components.
The parent component passes implicit context and handles the internal state, while child components render markup. This results in a flexible and reusable API.
Sometimes you need direct control over a child component from the parent. Adding control props gives parent components ways to influence behavior and appearance of inner elements.
For example, a <Modal> component could accept open, size, position props. Control props keep components encapsulated and reusable.
For maximum flexibility, the render prop pattern passes a render function child instead of JSX. This technique allows parent components to “inject” any sort of content into your reusable component.
Render props are useful for abstract components like <Mouse> or <DataFetching> that need to render dynamically based on the UI. Just be careful not to overuse render props!
Similar to compound components, you can break complex Hooks logic into smaller reusable hooks that compose together.
For example, useMediaQuery() could handle media queries while useTheme() returns the current theme. Composing primitive hooks together creates clean and modular custom hooks.
React Hooks Tips
Hooks represent React’s future direction. Here are some key tips to use them effectively:
- Split complex components into smaller functions starting with useEffect(), useMemo(), useCallback(), and useRef().
- When fetching data, use React Query instead of custom useState() and useEffect() logic. It handles caching, freshness, failures, etc.
- For complex forms, use react-hook-form over manually using useState() – it handles state management, validation, and errors.
- Prefer fewer state updates over derived state – directly update state from event handlers vs multiple useState() calls.
- Be wary of stale closures when passing callbacks to useEffect(), useMemo(), and useCallback(). Access values via ref or functional updates.
- Use hooks like useEvent() and useWindowSize() for reacting to browser events and dimensions instead of manually adding event listeners.
If you’re using TypeScript with React, here are some helpful tips:
- Add types for props by creating interfaces like Props or UserProps for each component.
- For reusable hooks, create typed wrappers like useUser() that return properly typed values.
- Use the eslint-plugin-react-hooks plugin to catch bugs with hooks usage.
- Set up TypeScript paths for shortcuts to common folders like components and hooks.
- Install the types for React, ReactDOM, React Router, and other libraries you use.
- Use types like React.FC for function components and React.ComponentType for generics.
- Take advantage of utility types like Partial and Required when needed.
- Enable the strict option and resolve any types – it will catch many bugs!
Testing React Apps
Writing tests for React apps prevents bugs and keeps you productive as features evolve. Here are testing tips:
- Use React Testing Library over Enzyme – it encourages UI testing that matches real usage.
- Take a test-driven approach by writing failing tests before code. This TDD cycle provides feedback and focus.
- Stub network requests and Test RPC methods for components using APIs to isolate behavior.
- Limit snapshot tests – they are fragile and often re-introduce bugs. Prefer testing specific conditions.
- End-to-end tests with Cypress can catch integration bugs missed by unit tests. Use mocks to avoid hitting real APIs.
- Achieve 100% test coverage of branches, lines, and functions to ensure quality and confidence. Fix holes shown in coverage reports.
- On CI, run linters, tests, and type checks to prevent bugs from reaching production. Automated testing is key!
Handling Side Effects
Requests, subscriptions, and DOM mutations are examples of side effects in React components. Here are suggested strategies for managing them:
- Use React Query for data fetching – it handles caching, loading states, error handling, etc.
- For OTHER side effects, use useEffect() hook. But try to minimize the number of useEffect() calls.
- Extract data fetching and imperative code into custom hooks like useUser() and useTheme().
- Use callback refs to directly call DOM methods vs keeping them in state.
- Call side effect cleanup functions in useEffect() return statement. This handles unsubscribes, abort fetch calls, and timers.
- Prefer one useEffect() with conditionals vs separate useEffect() calls for each side effect.
- Disable effects with the  empty deps array to avoid running again unnecessarily.
Optimizing Use Effect
Since useEffect() allows expressing imperative logic in React, it’s important to learn how to optimize its usage:
- Minimize re-running effects by properly setting deps array based on values used in callback.
- When using deps, wrap callback values in useRef() if needed to maintain latest references and avoid stale data.
- In simple cases, prefer useCallback() if you only need memoized callbacks vs full effect.
- Destructure dependency array values – this avoids issues with inline object/array deps changing reference.
- Disable exhaustive-deps rule if needed to express intentional stale data usage.
- Split big effects into smaller granular useEffect() calls focused on specific tasks.
- Use useIsMounted() if you need to check if component is mounted before setting state.
- For performance, avoid re-running effects too frequently – understand cost of each effect callback.
Architecting React Apps
When building sizable React applications, architecture is crucial. Here are several effective approaches:
- Stick to functional components and hooks as much as possible – avoid classes.
- Organize by feature rather than file type – group components, hooks, utils related to each feature.
- For large apps, break apart into separate npm packages with shared components, utils, types.
- Avoid too much nesting – flatten complex trees using compound components pattern.
- Collocate styles with components using CSS Modules, Styled Components or styled-jsx.
- Minimize overall state – integrate tools like React Query and React Table for data management.
- Handle forms with react-hook-form, React Final Form or Formik.
- Consider Redux for shared app state, but start with React Context.
- Use React Router for routing, handling navigation and code splitting.
The optimal architecture depends on your app’s complexity, team size, and growth plans. As apps scale, managing state across features becomes the hardest problem – so plan ahead!
Preparing for Growth
As your React app expands over time, there are pitfalls to avoid:
- Don’t build up too much technical debt with quick hacks or copying/pasting code. Refactor regularly.
- Watch out for unintended re-renders – implement shouldComponentUpdate() or React.memo().
- Monitor for performance regressions after each release using profiling tools.
- Set up error monitoring to detect crashes in production usage.
- Enable route-based code splitting to lazy load bundles on demand.
- Introduce API abstraction layers early to prevent cascading frontend changes when backends evolve.
- Automate and integrate ESLint, Prettier, and TypeScript for consistent code style.
- Adopt end-to-end testing, integration tests, and code coverage goals.
- Plan permissions, authentication, and access control upfront instead of bolting on later.
Investing in solid architecture and infrastructure will pay off as your React app grows!
React Community Resources
One of React’s greatest strengths is its vibrant open-source ecosystem. Here are invaluable community resources:
- React Documentation – Official docs are exceptionally well-written and kept current. The reference docs are extremely thorough.
- React DevTools – Browser extension that lets you inspect component trees, props, state, hooks, and events. Invaluable for debugging.
- Reactiflux Forums – Active online community of React developers helping each other in Discord chat rooms.
- Kent C. Dodds Blog – Kent is a React expert who publishes in-depth tutorials on advanced techniques.
- Dan Abramov Twitter – Co-creator of Redux and React core team member sharing insights.
- Overreacted Blog – Dan Abramov’s extensive blog on all things React and its ecosystem.
- Fullstack React Book – Open source book covering complete React architecture topics.
- Egghead.io Courses – Many excellent video courses on React and related tools. Quality instruction.
The React community produces a constant stream of new libraries, tools and learning resources. Stay engaged to keep growing as a React developer!
Recommended React Libraries
Here is a selection of our favorite libraries that are commonly used alongside React:
- React Router – Declarative routing and navigation.
- React Query – Managing server state and fetching data.
- React Table – Advanced datagrids for managing data.
- React Hook Form – Powerful form validation.
- Styled Components – CSS-in-JS styling framework.
- React Spring – Animation library for smooth UIs.
- Downshift – Primitives for autocomplete, dropdowns, comboboxes.
- React Window – Windowing for efficient rendering of long lists.
- React Intl – Internationalization and localization.
- React Helmet – Manages changes to document head.
- React Loadable – Code splitting components.
- React DND – Drag and drop library.
- React Select – Sophisticated select dropdowns.
- React Virtualized – Windowing for large datasets.
This is just a small sample – the React ecosystem is vast and still evolving!
We covered a LOT of ground here – from key performance tips to state management patterns to advanced component techniques.
Here are some key takeaways:
- Optimize React apps by avoiding reconciliation, implementing code splitting, and using production builds.
- Carefully plan state architecture using lifting state, React Context, Redux or React Query.
- Leverage patterns like compound components, control props and render props for reusable components.
- Prefer React Hooks over classes and integrate them efficiently.
- Architect apps by feature, flatten nesting, and colocate concerns.
- Prepare apps for scale by refactoring regularly, profiling, testing thoroughly and monitoring errors.
- Leverage the thriving React community and ecosystem of libraries.
Learning React is a journey. Exploring the easiest programming languages to learn, this guide offers a comprehensive roadmap of techniques and tools, equipping you with expert knowledge to seamlessly progress from a beginner to an advanced level. Mastering React may require time and experience, but armed with this resource, you’re well-prepared to construct exceptional React applications.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the benefits of using React?
Some key benefits of React include:
- Declarative: React uses declarative code that is easier to reason about. You simply declare how each state affects the UI.
- Component-based: Build encapsulated components that manage their own state and compose to make complex UIs.
- Learn once, use anywhere: Components you write can be reused across web, mobile, desktop etc.
- High performance: React handles updates efficiently using virtual DOM diffs and can optimize with techniques like memoization.
- Uses JSX syntax extension to define component structure and content
- Employs a component architecture for UI rather than imperative DOM manipulation
- Leverages a virtual DOM to minimize manual optimization
What are some limitations of React?
A few limitations to consider:
- Only handles UI: React focuses on the view layer. State management and data fetching are generally handled by other libraries.
- Steep learning curve: React has a lot of concepts to grasp like JSX, props vs state, lifecycle methods, etc.
- Rapid evolution: New features are added frequently, so you have to keep up with version changes. Popular packages in the ecosystem also change rapidly.
How does React compare to alternatives like Vue or Angular?
The core concepts are similar across popular frameworks: components, declarative rendering, managing state. Differences include:
- Angular provides a full framework with routing, HTTP etc built-in. More batteries included.
- Vue has a gentler learning curve. The reactivity system handles updating state automatically.
- React focuses on UI rendering and encourages external state management. Very flexible and extensive ecosystem.
All three are excellent choices though! Pick the one that resonates most with your background and needs.
What are some good resources for learning React?
If you’re looking to learn React, we recommend checking out the Official React docs. They’re very thorough and regularly updated, so you’ll always have access to the most current information. Another great resource is the React Fundamentals course by Kent C. Dodds, which is an on-demand video course that covers the basics of React.